Saturday, November 17, 2012

Energy conversion in an Automobile or car

simple energy conversion in a CAR (automobile):

Fuel-->Engine-->Alternator-->Voltage regulator-->

-->Car Electrical system-->Car Power line-->Motor-->Starter


Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture, primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines


A machine designed for the conversion of energy into useful mechanical motion

From Latin in + gen (gignere = create, beget)

When an engine's output is mechanical energy, it is called a prime mover


An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to alternating current electrical energy

Also called AC electrical generator

A car alternator powers the automobile's electrical system , and charges the battery when the car is running

Voltage regulator

A device or circuit that maintains constant output voltage in spite of changing line voltage and/or load current

Car electrical system

The car's electrical system supplies power to the car's radio, lights, clock, cellular phone, cigarette lighter, rear window defrosters, electric door locks, etc.

Car power line

Power generated is transferred through power lines then to the car's accessories and auxillary equipment that consumes power


A device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy


A starter is a device driven by an electric motor that initiates rotational motion in an internal combustion engine before it can power itself

Monday, November 12, 2012

Troubleshooting and Repair of Internal Combustion Engine (Diesel, Gasoline):

Listed below are some of the common engine problems or troubles and their possible causes


- Empty fuel tank

- Fuel is old, dirty, or contaminated

- Fuel pump not working

- Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached

- Inappropriate, clogged, or faulty spark plugs

- Loose plug wires

- Starter motor is not operational

- Battery is undercharged

- Ignition coil not functional

- Broken ignition switch

- Faulty wiring and connection problems in the ignition system

Possible causes: Engine stalls

- Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached

- Fuel tank empty

- Fuel filter is clogged up

- Fuel is old, dirty, or contaminated

- Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached

- Closed fuel tank vent

- Inoperative, or clogged thermostat

- Wrong engine oil

- Spark plugs defective, wrong, plugged, or incorrect spark-plug gap

Possible causes: Engine knocks

- clogged Carburetor

- Ignition Distributor problems

- plugged fuel Injectors

- Valve timing fails, or faulty

- failed or loose timing belt tensioner

- lean air-to-fuel mixture

- using fuel of lower than recommended Octane Rating

- too high engine compression

- Anti-Knock sensors malfunction

- Engine is too hot

- lack of proper exhaust gas recirculation

- air conditioning compressor fails or ices up

- Carbon deposits in the combustion chamber, pistons, cylinders, valves, or exhaust system lines

- Faulty or defective main crankshaft bearings

- water pump bearing is worn out

- Alternator rotor has worn bearings

- Flywheel is broken or has cracks

Possible causes: Engine idle not smooth

- Carburetor is flooded

- Fuel hose crushed or twisted

- Fuel filter clogged

- Fuel being used is contaminated or old and stale

- Throttle linkage sticking

- Spark plugs defective, wrong, plugged, or incorrect spark-plug gap

- Ignition problems occur in one or more cylinders

- Ignition wires maybe cracking or broken

- improper connection at both distributor cap and spark plugs

- clogged catalytic converter

- exhaust system is restricted or has blockage

Possible causes: Engine speed is low or not increasing

- Fuel filter is clogged

- Fuel supply hose incorrectly connected, broken, or twisted

- Fuel is old, dirty, or contaminated

- Spark plugs defective, wrong, plugged, or incorrect spark-plug gap

- Low engine oil level

Possible causes: Engine smokes

- engine is burning oil

- worn or broken piston rings

- worn or damaged cylinders

- worn valve guide or valve guide seals

- engine is burning coolant or transmission fluid

- leaking head gasket

- broken or cracked cylinder head

- Air filter is clogged

- Air/fuel mixture is too rich

- stuck automatic choke in the carburetor

- leaky fuel injector

- fuel pressure is too much

Possible causes: Engine overheating

- Overloading

- Water pump failure

- loose water pump impeller

- Clogged water lines

- Defective or clogged Thermostat

- Oil pump is faulty or not functional

- Engine oil level is too low

- Using old, contaminated, or incorrect engine oil

- Using spark plugs with inappropriate heat-range

- low coolant level, coolant leak, or poor coolant circulation

- faulty coolant sensor or air trapped under the sensor

- accumulated deposits in the water jackets

- fan clutch slips or misses

- cooling fan failure

- broken, cracked radiator hose

- ruptured or broken  radiator cap

- poor airflow through the radiator

- Radiator is poor or inefficient

Safe, Healthy, Responsible, Courteous and Defensive DRIVING: Do's and Don't's


- Before you drive, you must be physically, mentally, and emotionally fit.

- Know your vehicle before you drive it.

- Plan your route in advance.

- Gather adequate information.

- Check weather forecasts ahead of time.

- Always carry your driver's license, vehicle permit, and insurance when driving a motor vehicle.

- Do a round check before you drive to see if your tires are OK and to check your car or vehicle's outside condition.

- Put on your seat belt and make sure your passengers have put on their seat belts.

- Make sure the child car seat is properly and firmly fitted.

- Get into a position such that you have a clear view of the hood and at least 15 ft in front of the vehicle.

- Adjust your seat in order for your feet to reach the accelerator and brake pedals easily.

- Make sure your windows and mirrors are clean and clear from obstructions or obstacles.

- Adjust and check your mirrors before you drive.

- Know and check your blind spots.

- Keep your headlights clean.

- Turn on headlights at night and in poor conditions like fog, snow, or rain.

- Drive with your vehicle's lighting system turned on at all times so that you're more visible to pedestrians and other drivers.

- Always be alert and be aware of traffic and people around you.

- Keep other drivers out of your blind spot.

- Keep a safe distance or cushion space around your car.

- Have a foreknowledge or anticipate other people's and other drivers' turns and movements.

- Make allowances for other people and other drivers if ever they make mistakes.

- Be polite, courteous and considerate.

- Stay away from erratic drivers.

- Steer smoothly and accurately.

- Use the correct signals and make sure it can be seen clearly.

- Follow the rules for turning left or right.

- Obey the speed limits.

- Obey the police.

- Drive at a safe speed in bad weather, on school zones, hospitals, construction zones, and in heavy traffic.

- Maintain a safe distance such that you can stop safely in an emergency situation.

- Keep a safe braking distance between you and the vehicle ahead.

- Be prepared to safely slow down and stop when fire trucks, police cars, or ambulances approach.

- Be very careful when pedestrians, motorcyles, mopeds and bicycles make sudden turns or moves.

- Whenever possible, keep away from big or large vehicles such as trucks, payloaders, farm machinery, huge trailers, etc.

- Yield the right-of-way.

- Look far ahead for stops, intersections, parked vehicles, etc.

- Be prepared to stop at railway crossings, school crossings, school buses and pedestrian crossovers or crosswalks.

- When backing up, watch for cyclists and be very careful for children especially when they're shorter than the trunk height.

- When passing parked vehicles, watch for people opening doors.

- Stop at a safe distance at streetcar stops.

- When parking facing downhill, turn your front wheels towards the curb.

- When parking facing uphill without a curb, turn your wheels such that your vehicle goes away from traffic in case it rolls.

- If you miss an exit in a highway, take the next exit.

- When having long drives or long trips, stop, rest and take breaks.

- Be careful of using cellphones when driving.

- Eliminate distractions by all means if possible.

- Keep away and protect yourself from glare.

- Slow down when raining or when the road is wet.

- Keep away from puddles.

- Steer in the direction of the skid.

- Be prepared when driving in the winter, bring warm clothing, blanket, flashlight, cellphone, battery, shovel, food, etc.

- Slow down and be careful of icy roads and black ice.

- Pay attention to smog alerts.


- Don't drive when you're sick or injured.

- Don't drive when you've been drinking alcohol.

- Don't drive when you've taken drugs or medication.

- Don't drive when you're tired.

- Don't drive when you're drowsy or sleepy.

- Don't drive when you're upset or angry.

- Don't put anything in your windows that will block your view.

- Don't drive with only one headlight or if improperly aimed.

- Don't overspeed. It is unsafe, dangerous and risky of speeding tickets.

- Don't beat the traffic lights.

- Don't race.

- Don't cut a pedestrian, bicycle, motorcycle, or any other driver of a vehicle.

- Don't make sudden lane changes.

- Don't change lanes without giving the proper signal and without making sure it can be done safely.

- Don't change lanes in or near an intersection.

- Don't stop in an intersection.

- Don't stop or reverse on the freeway in case you miss an exit.

- Don't stop on the travelled portion of the road.

- Don't overtake in dangerous situations or on unsafe distance.

- Don't pass when you're close to a pedestrian crossing.

- Don't park on a curve.

- Don't park close to a fire hydrant, a public entrance, an intersection, or near a bridge.

- Don't park and leave animals (e.g. pets) inside.

- Don't get into the habit of driving aggresively.

- Don't tailgate.

- Don't get involved in arguments or emotional conversations while driving.

- Don't follow emergency vehicles.

- Don't steer, brake, or accelerate suddenly when driving in snow.

- Don't panic in an emergency. Slow down as safe as you can and stop and ask for help.

- Don't take chances. If you're unsure or in doubt, don't do it.

- Don't forget to pray.